Syllables are basic units in modern chinese phonetics containing chiefly Initials, Finals and Tones.
1 - Initials
Syllables are initiated by Initials which mainly are consonants.
b p m f d t n l
When Initials b, p, m, f stand alone, they should be pronounced as bo, po, mo, fo.
When Initials d, t, n, l stand alone, they're pronounced as de, te, ne, le.
2 - Finals
The element following the Initial in a syllable is called a Final. It is usually formed by either a single vowel or a vowel plus a nasal consonant.
a o e ê i u ü
Finals a, o, e, ê, i, u, ü are composed individually of only one vowel and are known as pure finals.
3 - Tones
A tone is indispensable to a syllable through which a syllable's high or low and rising or falling pitch gets indicated. In addition, a tone is used as a means for distinguishing meanings of words. Altogether there are four tones in modern Chinese.
feminine flat (the 1st tone) ā ō ē bū dī
masculine flat (the 2nd tone) á ó é pú tí
rising tone (the 3rd tone) ǎ ǒ ě mǔ nǐ
falling tone (the 4th tone) à ò è fù lì